COSMIC RAYS



 

Cosmic Rays



Space experiments

Balloon experiments

Ground experiments




Image Name Status
Location

Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) ACE was launched on August 25, 1997. Satellite

AGILE Data Center The satellite was lauched on April 23rd, 2007, from the Indian base of Sriharikota Satellite
home Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS The first phase of the project, AMS-01, is already finished. About the second phase, AMS-02, the final testing and assembly is being completed at CERN in Geneva and delivery to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida is expected in the the spring of 2010. Launch is targeted for July 29, 2010. Satellite

The BeppoSAX Mission SAX was launched on April 30 1996 and renamed BeppoSAX in honor of Giuseppe "Beppo" Occhialini. Due to the poor and degrading spacecraft conditions and to the rapid orbital decay, all in-orbit operations of the BeppoSAX mission ended on April 30 2002. BeppoSAX re-entered on April 29, 2003. Satellite
Chandra Launched on July 23, 1999 Satellite

CGRO In operation. Mission terminated Satellite
Geotail Launched on July 24, 1992. Satellite
Fermi LAT It was launched on 11 June 2008. The design life of the mission is 5 years and the goal for mission operations is 10 years. Satellite

GRANAT Operated almost for 10 years (1989 -1999) Satellite

HETE-2 (High Energy Transient Explorer) It was sent to the space in the 90's. The last update is from 2007. Satellite

IMP-8 Project Launched on October 26, 1973. Last available data are for October 7, 2006. Satellite
Integral logo INTEGRAL In operation. Satellite
Nina Experiment NINA 2000 Satellite
Pamela Still working. Satellite

Polar Launched on February 24, 1996. Satellite

ROSAT It was launched by the United States on June 1, 1990. The mission ended after almost nine years, on February 12, 1999. Satellite
Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Launched on December 30, 1995 Satellite
SAMPEX Launched on July 3, 1992. Operations have finished now. Satellite
Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma It will be launched in the 2012 year. Satellite

Suzaku Launched on July 10, 2005 Satellite
Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission Launched on November 20, 2004 Satellite
Ulysses Launched on 6 Oct 1990. Projected mission ended on 1 Jul 2008 . Satellite
Voyager 1 Launched on September 5, 1977. Satellite
Voyager 2 Launched on August 20, 1977 Satellite
Wind
logo Wind Launched on November 1, 1994 Satellite
The XMM-Newton large-scale structure survey The survey was started in 2000 and it is still relevant. Satellite

BESS The project was developed in 2004. Palestine, TX

Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) ATIC was launched for the first time in December 2000 and has since completed three successful flights out of four. McMurdo Station

TRACER In 2003 TRACER had a successful 14 day Antarctic flight. Antartic
TIGERscape The TIGER mission It had three successful flights: one from Fort Sumner, NM (summer of 1997), and two from Antarctica (December 2001 - January 2002 and December 2003 - January 2004). Antartica
CREAM The CREAM mission has had five successful flights: (1) 12/16/04 – 1/27/05, (2) 12/16/05 – 1/13/06, (3) 12/19/07 – 1/17/08, (4) 12/19/08 – 1/7/09, and (5) 12/1/09 – 1/8/10 , respectively called CREAM-I, -II, -III, -IV and -V. Antartica
PERDaix Being proposed to the German Space Agency in November 2009 for a participation in the BEXUS Program (Rocket and Balloon Experiments for University Students) after a first canceled flight attempt in October 2010 the actual flight took place as a post-BEXUS-campaign flight opportunity in November 2010.
Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden.

HEAT August 1995. Lynn Lake
Akeno Giant Air Shower Array Last update is from 2003. Akeno Observatory
CHICOS -
Los Angeles

High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector From May 1997 until April 2006. Western Utah
MAGIC MAGIC The first telescope was built on 2004 and operated for five years in standalone mode. A second MAGIC telescope (MAGIC-II), at a distance of 85 m from the first one, started taking data in July 2009. Together they integrate the MAGIC telescope stereoscopic system.
Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma
MARIACHI (Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization) The experiment is now working. Long Island.
Pierre Auger Observatory The project was proposed by Jim Cronin and Alan Watson in 1992. Today, almost 500 physicists from 55 institutions around the world are collaborating to build the southern site. Western Argentina's Mendoza Province.

home

Telescope Array It's now working. High desert in Millard County, Utah, USA.
waltalogo2-t-sm.gif (2590 bytes) Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array. It's now working. Several scintillators at local Seattle schools

CLOUD. The equipment began operations in November 2009 and should be producing results pretty rapidly. The first comprehensive quantitative analyses are expected already in 2010, well ahead of the previous plans of a launch in 2011. CERN

Spaceship Earth. Last update is from 2006. Around the world

Milagro The Milagro Experiment stopped taking data in April 2008 after seven years of operation. Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Real-time Neutron Monitor Database.


-
-
KASCADE. It started in 1996. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany.
GAMMA. It's now working. Mount Aragats in Armenia

GRAPES-3. It's now working. Ooty in Tamilnadu of southern India
HEGRA HEGRA took data between 1987 and 2002. Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma

Chicago Air Shower Array. ASA began operating in 1992. The project was decommissioned sometime before the summer of 2001. Utah

home

Ice Cube The experiment is currently in data taking.

South Pole Station.



Space experiments:


 

Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)



 


Links: http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/


Who: Office of Space Science Mission and Payload Development Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

 

Where: ACE was launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

 

How: The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft carrying six high-resolution sensors and three monitoring instruments samples low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles with a collecting power 10 to 1000 times greater than past experiments

 

When:  ACE was launched on August 25, 1997.



 

AGILE Data Center

AGILE


Links: http://agile.asdc.asi.it/


Who: Italian Space Agency (ASI).

 

Where: Space

 

How: AGILE is the first of a new generation of high-energy space missions based on solid-state silicon technology, combining for the first time two sophisticated co-axial instruments: a gamma-ray detector, sensitive to photons with energy in the range 30 MeV - 50 GeV, and a hard X-ray detector, sensitive in the range 18 - 60 keV.

 

When:  The satellite was lauched on April 23rd, 2007, from the Indian base of Sriharikota.




Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS


home


Link: http://ams.cern.ch/AMS/ams_homepage.html


Who: University of Bologna

              University of Geneve

              CIEMAT

              Montpelier astroparticles group.

              University of Milan

              ITEP Moscow

              INFN Roma

              Turku University

              IN2P3 Grenoble

 

Where: ISS (International Spatial Station).

 

How: In general, AMS is trying to study the sources of cosmic rays. These sources include ordinary things like stars and supernovae, as well as (perhaps!) exotica like quark stars, dark-matter annihilations, and galaxies made entirely of antimatter. Each astrophysical source emits a particular type of cosmic rays. In order to analyze them the AMS sits on the outside of the ISS, looking out into space. High-energy particles pass through AMS, interacting with different detectors on the way. Each detector contributes a bit of information about the particle; by combining all of the information, we can identify the particles, and hopefully learn where they come from.

 

When: The first phase of the project, AMS-01, is already finished. About the second phase, AMS-02, it already arrived to the ISS and the first events have been detected on may 19th 2011.




The BeppoSAX Mission


Link: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/sax/saxgof.html


Who: Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace programs (NIVR). The mission was supported by a consortium of institutes in Italy together with institutes in the Netherlands , and the Space Science Department of ESA.  

 

Where: The BeppoSAX U.S. Coordination Facility (USCF) was established at the HEASARC

 

How: The payload is characterized by a very wide spectral coverage from 0.1 to 300 keV, with well balanced performances both from its low and high energy instrumentation. Its sensitivity will allow the exploitation of the full band for weak sources (1/20 of 3C273), opening new perspectives in the study of spectral shape and variability of several classes of objects.

 

When: SAX was launched on April 30 1996 and renamed BeppoSAX in honor of Giuseppe "Beppo" Occhialini. Due to the poor and degrading spacecraft conditions and to the rapid orbital decay, all in-orbit operations of the BeppoSAX mission ended on April 30 2002. BeppoSAX re-entered on April 29, 2003.




Chandra


Link: http://chandra.harvard.edu/


Who: NASA 

 

Where: Space
 

How: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes.

 

When: Launched on July 23, 1999



  

 

CGRO

 

Link: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/cgro/cgro/

 

Who: NASA

 

Where:  Satellite.

 

How: The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) carries a collection of four instruments which together can detect an unprecedented broad range of high-energy radiation called gamma rays. These instruments are the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET).

 

When: In operation. Mission terminated




Geotail


Link: http://chandra.harvard.edu/


Who:  Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

 

Where: Space
 

How: Its primary objective is to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetotail over a wide range of distance, extending from the near-Earth region (8 Earth radii (Re) from the Earth) to the distant tail (about 200 Re).

 

When: Launched on July 24, 1992.



  

 

Fermi LAT


Link: http://www-glast.stanford.edu/

 

Who:

Country Funding Agencies
United States NASA; Department of Energy
France Commissariat l'Energie Atomique; CNRS/Institut National de Physique Nuclaire et de Physique des Particules
Italy Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica
Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK); Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
Sweden K. A. Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council; National Space Board

 

 

Where: Near-earth orbit.

 

How: The LAT is an imaging high-energy gamma-ray telescope covering the energy range from about 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV.

 

When: It was launched on 11 June 2008. The design life of the mission is 5 years and the goal for mission operations is 10 years.



GRANAT


Link: http://hea.iki.rssi.ru/GRANAT/granat.html


Who:  Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

 

Where: Space
 

How: GRANAT is the Russian x-ray sattelite that carried out four major instruments: French SIGMA coded-mask hard x-ray telescope (30-1000 keV), Soviet ART-P coded-mask telescope (2??-60?? keV), all-sky monitor WATCH (6-150 keV), and a gamma-burst detector PHEBUS.

 

When: Operated almost for 10 years (1989 -1999)



HETE-2 (High Energy Transient Explorer)


Link: http://space.mit.edu/HETE/


Who: International collaboration led by the Center for Space Research at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology.
 

Where: Space
 

How: The High Energy Transient Explorer  is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts. 

 

When: It was sent to the space in the 90's. The last update is from 2007.



IMP-8 Project


Link: http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/imp8/project.html


Who: NASA
 

Where: Space
 

How: IMP-8 (IMP-J) was launched to measure the magnetic fields, plasmas, and energetic charged particles (e.g., cosmic rays) of the Earth's magnetotail and magnetosheath and of the near-Earth solar wind. 

When: Launched on October 26, 1973. Last available data are for October 7, 2006.

 


  

 

INTEGRAL

Integral logo

Link: http://www.esa.int/export/esaSC/120374_index_0_m.html

 

Who: ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory.

 

Where:  Satellite.

 

How: Integral is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Its principal targets are violent explosions known as gamma-ray bursts, powerful phenomena such as supernova explosions, and regions in the Universe thought to contain black holes.

 

When: In operation.

 


  

 

NINA

Nina Experiment

Link: http://wizard.roma2.infn.it/nina/index.htm
 

Who:  Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and the Moscow State Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI).

 

Where: Italian satellite MITA

 

How: Its scientific goal is to detect cosmic ray nuclei of galactic, solar, anomalous and trapped origin between 10 and 200 MeV/n at 1 AU, by means of two satellite missions.

 

When: 2000

 


  

 

Pamela


 

Link: http://pamela.roma2.infn.it/index.php

 

Who: 

ITALY

   Sezione INFN and Physics Department of Roma Tor Vergata University
 Sezione INFN and Physics Department of Bari University
 Sezione INFN and Physics Department of Florence University
 Sezione INFN and Physics Department of Naples University
 Sezione INFN and Physics Department of Trieste University
 INFN National Laboratories of Frascati
 IFAC - CNR Florence



RUSSIA

  Cosmic Rays Laboratory, Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Moscow
Laboratory of Solar and Cosmic Ray Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute Academy of Sciences, Moscow
Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg



GERMANY

  Physics Department of Siegen University  

SWEDEN

  Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm  

 

Where: Orbit at an altitude between 350 and 610 Km.

 

How: The Pamela mission is devoted to the investigation of dark matter, the baryon asymmetry in the Universe, cosmic ray generation and propagation in our Galaxy and Solar System.

 

When: Still working.

 


  

 

Polar

 

Link: http://pwg.gsfc.nasa.gov/polar/
 

Who:  NASA

 

Where: Space.

 

How: Polar has the responsibility for multi-wavelength imaging of the aurora, measuring the entry of plasma into the polar magentosphere and the geomagnetic tail, the flow of plasma to and from the ionosphere, and the deposition of particle energy in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

 

When: Launched on February 24, 1996.

 


  

 

ROSAT

 

Link: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/rosat/rosgof.html
 

Who:  NASA

 

Where: Space.

 

How: ROSAT, the ROentgen SATellite, was an X-ray observatory.

 

When: It was launched by the United States on June 1, 1990. The mission ended after almost nine years, on February 12, 1999.

 


  

 

Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer



Link: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xte/XTE.html
 

Who:  NASA

 

Where: Space.

 

How: RXTE features unprecedented time resolution in combination with moderate spectral resolution to explore the variability of X-ray sources.

 

When: Launched on December 30, 1995

 


  

 

SAMPEX



Link: http://sunland.gsfc.nasa.gov/smex/sampex/
 

Who:  NASA

 

Where: Space.

 

How: The four SAMPEX instruments are a complementary set of high resolution, high sensitivity, particle detectors used to conduct studies of solar, anomalous, galactic, and magnetospheric energetic particles.

 

When: Launched on July 3, 1992. Operations have finished now.

 


  

 

Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma


 

Link: http://hea.iki.rssi.ru/SRG/en/index.php
 

Who:  Roscosmos (Russia) and DLR (Germany).

 

Where: Space.

 

How: The mission will conduct all-sky survey with X-ray mirror telescopes eROSITA and ART-XC up to 11 keV. 

 

When: It will be launched in the 2012 year.

 


  

 

Suzaku

 

Link: http://www.astro.isas.ac.jp/suzaku/
 

Who:  Japan-US international collaboration.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: The SUZAKU (ASTRO-EII) mission is able to perform various kinds of observational studies for a wide variety of X-ray sources, with higher energy resolution and a higher sensitivity over a wider energy range (from 0.3 to 600 keV) than ever before achieved.

 

When: Launched on July 10, 2005.

 


  

 

Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission


Link: http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/swift/swiftsc.html
 

Who:  NASA and international collaboration.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: With Swift scientists have a tool dedicated to answering these questions and solving the gamma-ray burst mystery. Its three instruments give scientists the ability to scrutinize gamma-ray bursts like never before.

 

When: Launched on November 20, 2004.

 


  

 

Ulysses



 

Link: http://ulysses-ops.jpl.esa.int/ulsfct/Mission_index.html
 

Who:  ESA and NASA.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: It explored interplanetary space at high solar latitudes.

 

When: Launched on 6 Oct 1990. Projected mission ended on 1 Jul 2008 .


  

 

Voyager 1


 

Link:  http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/index.html
 

Who:  NASA.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram (1,592-lb) robotic American space probe launched to study the outer Solar System and eventually interstellar space. The spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the Deep Space Network. It is the first probe to leave the Solar System and is the farthest man made object from Earth.

 

When: Launched on September 5, 1977.


  

 

Voyager 2


 

Link:  http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/index.html
 

Who:  NASA.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: Part of the Voyager program with its identical sister craft Voyager 1, the spacecraft is currently in extended mission, tasked with locating and studying the boundaries of the Solar System, including the Kuiper belt, the heliosphere and interstellar space. 

 

When: Launched on August 20, 1977


  

 

Wind
Wind
logo

 

Link:  http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/wind/
 

Who:  NASA.

 

Where: Space.

 

How: Together with Geotail, Polar, SoHO and Cluster, constitute a cooperative scientific satellite project designated the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program that aims at gaining improved understanding of the physics of solar terrestrial relations.

 

When: Launched on November 1, 1994


  

 

The XMM-Newton large-scale structure survey:


 

Link:  http://vela.astro.ulg.ac.be/themes/spatial/xmm/LSS/index_e.html
 

Who:  ESA.

 

Where:  In European telescopes like ESO or CFHT.

 

How: The survey performs a 8 x 8 deg2 survey at high galactic latitude to reach a sensitivity of ~ 5 10-15 erg.cm-2.s-1 in the [0.5-2] keV band. The survey consist of 24 x 24 10 ks XMM/EPIC pointings separated by 20 arcmin offsets. The project is a wide collaboration between institutes and scientists and was originally designed for the big galaxy clusters (out of z ~ 1 and of QSOs farther) study.

 

When:The survey was started in 2000 and it is still relevant.



Balloon experiments:



  

 

BESS



 

Link: http://www.universe.nasa.gov/astroparticles/programs/bess/

 

Who: NASA/Goddard, KEK, University of Tokyo, Kobe University and the Institute for Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS/JAXA).

 

Where: Palestine, TX

 

How: BESS (the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer) is a joint project of Japanese and US scientists to search for antimatter in the cosmic radiation, as well as measure energy and intensity of less exotic components of the cosmic radiation.

 

When: The project was developed in 2004.


  

 

Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

 

Link: http://www.atic.umd.edu/atic.html

 

Who: NASA.

 

Where: McMurdo Station

 

How: The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) is a balloon-borne instrument flying in the stratosphere over Antarctica to measure the energy and composition of cosmic rays.

 

When: ATIC was launched for the first time in December 2000 and has since completed three successful flights out of four.


  

 

TRACER
 

Link: http://tracer.uchicago.edu/

 

Who:  University of Chicago.

 

Where: Antartic

 

How: Transition Radiation Array for Cosmic Energetic Radiation (TRACER) is a balloon flown cosmic ray detector. The detector is designed to measure the energy spectra of cosmic ray nuclei with atomic numbers between five and twenty-six (boron to iron)
 

When: In 2003 TRACER had a successful 14 day Antarctic flight.


  

 

The TIGER mission

TIGERscape
 

Link: http://tiger.gsfc.nasa.gov/

 

Who:  TIGER is a collaboration between Washington University in St. Louis, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and the University of Minnesota.

 

Where: Antartica

 

How: The TIGER instrument measures the elemental composition of cosmic rays heavier than iron.
 

When: It had three successful flights: one from Fort Sumner, NM (summer of 1997), and two from Antarctica (December 2001 - January 2002 and December 2003 - January 2004).


  

 

CREAM



Link: http://cosmicray.umd.edu/cream/

 

Who: 

.

 

Where: Antartica

 

How: The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) experiment was designed and constructed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra using a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The goal is to extend direct measurement of cosmic-ray composition to the energies capable of generating gigantic air showers which have been mainly observed on the ground, thereby providing calibration for indirect measurements.
 

When: The CREAM mission has had five successful flights: (1) 12/16/04 – 1/27/05, (2) 12/16/05 – 1/13/06, (3) 12/19/07 – 1/17/08, (4) 12/19/08 – 1/7/09, and (5) 12/1/09 – 1/8/10 , respectively called CREAM-I, -II, -III, -IV and -V.


  

 

PERDaix



Link: http://www.perdaix.de/

 

Who: RWTH Aachen University.

 

Where: Esrange Space Center near Kiruna, Sweden.

 

How: PERDaix (Proton Electron Radiation Detector Aix-la-Chapelle) is a novel,small and light weight magnet spectrometer to measure the charge and mass dependent solar modulation periodically for deeper understanding of cosmic rays.
 

When: Being proposed to the German Space Agency in November 2009 for a participation in the BEXUS Program (Rocket and Balloon Experiments for University Students) after a first canceled flight attempt in October 2010 the actual flight took place as a post-BEXUS-campaign flight opportunity in November 2010.


  

 

HEAT

Link: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995psu..reptR....B

 

Who: -

 

Where: Lynn Lake

 

How: The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons.
 

When: August 1995.




Ground experiments:




  

 

Akeno Giant Air Shower Array



Link: http://www-akeno.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/AGASA/

 

Who:  Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo

 

Where: Akeno Observatory.
 

How: The Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) is a very large surface array designed to study the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. It covers an area of 100 km2 and consists of 111 surface detectors and 27 muon detectors. Array experiments such as this one are used to detect air shower particles.
 

When: Last update is from 2003.


  

 

CHICOS



Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHICOS

 

Who:  Kellogg Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, USA.

 

Where:  Los Angeles

How: CHICOS is an active research array for the detection of Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray.
 

When:-


  

 

High Resolution Fly's Eye Cosmic Ray Detector

Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Resolution_Fly%27s_Eye_Cosmic_Ray_Detector

 

Who:  University of Utah.

 

Where:  Western Utah

How: HiRes utilized the atmospheric fluorescence technique that was pioneered by the Utah group first in tests at the Volcano Ranch experiment and then with the original Fly's Eye experiment.
 

When: From May 1997 until April 2006.


  

 

MAGIC

MAGIC

Link:
 
http://wwwmagic.mppmu.mpg.de/

 

Who:  Physicists from over twenty institutions in Germany, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Croatia, Finland, Poland, Bulgaria and Armenia.

 

Where:  Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma

How: MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov Telescope) is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.
 

When: The first telescope was built on 2004 and operated for five years in standalone mode. A second MAGIC telescope (MAGIC-II), at a distance of 85 m from the first one, started taking data in July 2009. Together they integrate the MAGIC telescope stereoscopic system.


  
 

MARIACHI (Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization)


 

Link: http://www.mariachi.stonybrook.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
 

Who:  Brookhaven National Laboratory

 

Where: Long Island.

 

How: MARIACHI, the Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization, is an apparatus for the detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) via bi-static radar using VHF transmitters.


 

When: The experiment is now working.


  
 

Pierre Auger Observatory


 

Link: http://www.auger.org/
 

Who:  -

 

Where: Western Argentina's Mendoza Province.

 

How: The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: single sub-atomic particles (protons or atomic nuclei) with energies beyond 1020 eV


 When: The project was proposed by Jim Cronin and Alan Watson in 1992. Today, almost 500 physicists from 55 institutions around the world are collaborating to build the southern site.

 


Telescope Array.

 


home

 

Link: http://www.telescopearray.org/

 

Who: Universities and institutes in Japan, Korea, Russia, the U.S., and Belgium.

 

Where: High desert in Millard County, Utah, USA.

 

How: The experiment is designed to observe cosmic-ray-induced air showers at extremely high energies using a combination of scintillator ground array and air-fluorescence techniques.

 

When: It's now working.

 


Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array.

waltalogo2-t-sm.gif (2590 bytes)

 

Link: http://neutrino.phys.washington.edu/~walta/

 

Who: University of Washington

 

Where: Several scintillators at local Seattle schools

How: The Washington Area Large-scale Time-coincidence Array (WALTA) is a cosmic ray physics experiment to investigate ultra high energy cosmic rays (>10^19 eV).

 

When: It's now working.

 


CLOUD.

 

Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CLOUD

 

Who: Jasper Kirkby

 

Where: CERN

How: Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets or the CLOUD is an experimental facility being set up to investigate the microphysics between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and clouds under controlled conditions.

 

When: The equipment began operations in November 2009 and should be producing results pretty rapidly. The first comprehensive quantitative analyses are expected already in 2010, well ahead of the previous plans of a launch in 2011.

 


Spaceship Earth.

 

Link:http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/ 

 

Who: Participating institutions from the United States of America, Russia, Canada, and Australia.

 

Where: Around the world

How: Spaceship Earth is a network of neutron monitors designed to measure the flux of cosmic rays arriving at Earth from different directions.

 

When: Last update is from 2006.

 


Milagro.

 

Link: http://www.lanl.gov/milagro/index.shtml

 

Who: Los Alamos

 

Where:  Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico.

How: Milagro, (the Spanish word for miracle), was a ground based water Čerenkov radiation telescope.  It was primarily designed to detect gamma rays but also detected large numbers of cosmic rays.

 

When: The Milagro Experiment stopped taking data in April 2008 after seven years of operation.

 


Real-time Neutron Monitor Database.


 

Link: http://www.nmdb.eu/

 

Who: -

 

Where:  -

How: The Real-time Neutron Monitor Database (or NMDB) is a worldwide network of standardized neutron monitors, used to record variations of the primary cosmic rays. The measurements complement space-based cosmic ray measurements.

 

When: -.

 


KASCADE.


 

Link:  http://www-ik.fzk.de/KASCADE_home.html

 

Who:

 

Where: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany.

How: KASCADE is a European physics experiment , an extensive air shower experiment array to study the cosmic ray primary composition and the hadronic interactions in the energy range of 1016–1018 eV, measuring simultaneously the electronic, muonic and hadronic components.

 

When: It started in 1996.

 


GAMMA.


 

Link: http://www.gamma-armenia.org/

 

Who: Yerevan Physics Institute

 

Where:  Mount Aragats in Armenia

How: GAMMA Experiment is a study of: a) Primary cosmic ray energy spectra and elemental composition (abundances of the elements) at energies 1015-1018eV (so called knee energy region); b) Galactic diffuse gamma-ray intensity at energies 1014-1015eV; c) Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at the mountain level by the ground-based EAS array and underground muon scintillation counters; d) Hard jets production at energies ~1016eV by the muon multi-core shower events.

 

When: It's now working.

 


GRAPES-3.

 

Link: http://alpha.sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp/grapes3/index.html

 

Who: Collaborative project between India and Japan.

 

Where:  Ooty in Tamilnadu of southern India

How: GRAPES-3 (Gamma Ray Astronomy PeV EnergieS 3rd establishment) is a project for cosmic ray study with air shower detector array and large area muon detectors.

 

When: It's now working.

 


HEGRA.


 

Link: http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/CT/CT.html

 

Who: Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the German Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, the University of Wuppertal, the IFKKI in Kiel or the University of Hamburg.

 

Where:  Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma

How: HEGRA, which stands for High-Energy-Gamma-Ray Astronomy, was an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for Gamma-ray astronomy. It was dismantled in order to build its successor, MAGIC, at the same site.

 

When: HEGRA took data between 1987 and 2002.

 


Chicago Air Shower Array.

 

Link:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Air_Shower_Array

 

Who: -

 

Where: Utah

How: The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) was a very large array of scintillation counters.

 

When: ASA began operating in 1992. The project was decommissioned sometime before the summer of 2001.

 


Chicago Air Shower Array.

 

Link:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Air_Shower_Array

 

Who: -

 

Where: Utah

How: The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) was a very large array of scintillation counters.

 

When: ASA began operating in 1992. The project was decommissioned sometime before the summer of 2001.


  

 Ice Cube
 

home


Link: http://icecube.wisc.edu/

 

Who: Chiba University, Chiba, Japan

DESY, Zeuthen, Germany

Imperial College, London, UK

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA

Amundsen-Scott Station, Antarctica

Stockholm Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden

Universitt Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany

Universitt Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Universitt Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany

Universit Libre, Brussels, Belgium

Universit de Mons-Hainaut, Mons, Belgium

University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

 

Where: South Pole Station.

 

How: IceCube is a telescope searching for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. IceCube will encompass a cubic kilometer of ice and uses a novel astronomical messenger called a neutrino to probe the universe.

 

When: The experiment is currently in data taking.

 

 

 


Author

Adrin Almazn , E-mail: manueladrian.almazan@estudiante.uam.es

Fri May 27 16:37:00 BST 2011

Advisor

Jun Garca-Bellido , E-mail: juan.garciabellido@uam.es